[Research Background]   The pursuit of this research was to develop a methodology to create complex structural systems within a parametric framework and to develop a criteria for assessing and discussing their success.  They each began with a simple intention and developed through their respective processes to be far more interesting than expected.  The methodology refined by these studies mandated a practiced understanding of the material processes involved as well as a dependence on feed back from iteration.    Parametric Theory, is not assumed to be inherently linked to digital algorithmic computation, but rather an exciting theoretical framework that has tremendous analog implications as well.  It is believed that the current conflagration of computational systems has served to expose us to a world that was perhaps already inherent to us, one that can and should be pursued by a multitude of techniques and art forms.    Each of these systems began with a vague intention.  Then components and connection strategies were invented to best carry out the intention.  As material and process realities affected the assembly of the systems, new limits and opportunities arose and were evaluated against the original intention, providing added authorship potential.   Bronze Introversion Intention   By creating a strategically asymmetrical part, the aggregation of many would produce a form with structural complexity on the inside and a smooth regular diamond pattern on the outside.   Components   Aside from the intention to differentiate the inside from the outside, the most important factors that influenced the development of the part were structural stability and the necessity of transmitting molten bronze from one to the next without trapping air during casting. The shape to the right illustrates the final asymmetrical part that is half diamond, to produce an outside pattern and half structural connectors for the interior structure.   Aggregation/Mutation Strategy   This system is composed of dissimilar parts with a constant connection strategy. Each part was shaped so that, when cut from a wax sheet and folded, they could be fused to each other at three points to produce a rigid structure. To take advantage of the potential of this developing complex system and push the resulting form to extremes, the individual parts were adjusted before assembly to disrupt the potential uninteresting repetition of similar parts. As the parts were drawn digitally and organized into rows, each row was scaled to produce a size gradient from small to large and back to small. This strategy might have produced a rather expected form but, combined with the extreme variability and inconsistency of the wax to bronze process, the resulting system was very surprising.   Result   This piece was the first  study in bronze so the process was unknown at the onset of production.  Interestingly, it was also the most successful and predictable with the exception of the air venting tendrils.  The shape of the parts, designed to easily fill with bronze and vent escaping air during casting, had to be modified during construction to provide additional air venting.  The added vents were placed with care so that they might be saved in the final piece but it was predicted they would need to be removed.  When the vents filled with bronze, the resulting appendages were so interesting that they were further sculpted to their final organic appearance.  They were also able to precariously balance the entire weight of the piece, which produced a strangely levitated effect for an otherwise heavy object.   When lit for photographs, it displayed another unintended quality as it produced intricate and complex shadow patterns on the ground surface.  This shadow casting ability was reproduced strategically in later case studies.
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